Indian Railways (IR) is a statutory body under the ownership of the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India that operates India’s national railway system. As of 2023, it manages the fourth largest national railway system by size with a running track length of 104,647 km (65,025 mi) and route length of 68,426 km (42,518 mi) of which 60,451 km (37,563 mi) is electrified. With more than 1.2 million employees, it is the world’s ninth-largest employer and India’s second largest employer.

Post Indian Independence, the Indian Railways was formed by the amalgamation of

operated in 1837 in Madras with the first passenger operating in 1853 between Bombay and Thane. In 1925, the first electric train ran in Bombay on DC traction. The first locomotive manufacturing unit was commissioned in 1950 at Chittaranjan with the first coach manufacturing unit set-up at Madras in 1955.

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